How to raise the surface level of a garden at risk of flooding.

Step by step guide to raise the surface level of a garden 

  1. Benefits of a raised garden level.
  2. Problems associated with raising a low lying garden.
  3. How to build the retaining walls and sub base.
  4. Preparing the topsoil.
  5. Alternatives to raising the complete area.
  6. What is the floodplain or flood plain?
  7. Contact for our drainage services
Flooded garden before being raised
Flooded garden before being raised.

What is a floodplain.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of flat or nearly flat land that is adjacent to a stream or river, stretching from the banks of the river or stream to surrounding higher ground  and experiences flooding during periods of heavy rainfall and run off from higher ground.
The run off can be from higher ground further up-stream. 
Put simply, a floodplain is an area near a river or a stream which floods when the water level rises.

Stop your garden flooding by raising the surface level above the floodplain, the Pros and Cons.

The plus side of raising the soil level. 
  • You will have risen above the flooding problem.
  • You and your kids won't be walking on a bog.
  •  Plants will grow again.
The downside. 
  • The underlying cause will still be there. 
  • Depending on how high you intend to raise your lawn or garden, you might need to get permission or at the very least consider the effect on the environment and people around you.
  • Where will the flood water flow to ?
  • Raising a lawn or the complete garden surface above the flood-plane will almost certainly have an effect on yours and others privacy, you could end up  2 feet higher and your neighbours 2 foot lower.
  • Unless you raise the height of boundary fencing or hedging you will be looking down on them and they will be looking up at you. 
  • A six foot fence erected on the new level will be eight foot high on the neighbours side, probably needing planning permission.
Other important considerations. 
  • Adding topsoil to permanently saturated soil without first laying a drainage course of clean rubble will create one big bog.
  • If you want to grow potatoes, carrots, parsnips etc. you will  need a deep bed of soil. 
  • Don't bury manholes

Constructing a drainage course before adding the top soil

How you raise the surface level of a garden outlined here.
 Raising the level of a garden or lawn by 18 inches will require,
  • Retaining walls need to be built around the complete area being raised. These can be built using breeze blocks set on a sound footing.
  • Slope the surface very slightly to allow surface water to drain away.
  • Weep holes for drainage need to be formed every 2 meters and every 1 meter at the lowest end of the slope.
  • Rubble. Clean, chunky, dust free rubble to form the drainage course can be added when the retaining wall cement  is set solid.
  • Drainage course. This is a layer of clean chunky rubble laid to keep the new soil separate from the saturated soil and to assist drainage from the newly raised surface.  
  • Builders rubble, clean broken brick, broken slabs can be used for the drainage course.  Spread the rubble evenly and compact it. You may need to add several layers.
  • A wacker plate is the quickest way to compact the rubble. Driving a digger backwards and forwards over the area works too.
  • Depth of drainage course, lay and compact enough layers of broken brick etc. until its deep enough to separate the new top soil from the saturated soil below. This will be a minimum of six inches.
  • Clean gravel. Use clean gravel  to fill  the gaps between the compacted rubble to stop the new soil falling through to the mud below.  Soil will work like a wick or sponge, if allowed to come into contact with mud, drawing water up to the surface.
Top tip If you have got good access to the area you are raising leave a gap in the wall wide enough to get a digger and tipper lorry through. It's a lot easier if you tip the rubble and then the soil directly onto the area being raised. Then finish the wall.

Adding topsoil when raising the surface of a garden.

  • Buying Topsoil.  The cheapest ways to buy recycled topsoil is in bulk from a local supplier (this type of topsoil cannot be guaranteed to be weed or clay free) or from a building site (make sure you are not using a mix of top and sub soil). The safest way to purchase loamy topsoil is from a specialist supplier.
  • Spreading the soil. If you can, ask the supplier to tip the soil in even piles over the area.
  • Raking out the soil. Choose a dry day if you can and shovel the piled earth evenly over the area and then rake it level.
  • Firming the soil.  Choose a dry day and firm the surface following the advice on this page.  Its important not to compact the surface or you will end up with a poorly draining lawn or garden.
  • Settling.The soil will settle as it dries out, so slightly overfill or top up as necessary.
  • Calculating quantity of  topsoil. Measure the length, width and depth of the area you need to fill with soil in metres and multiply the three figures together to get the volume in cubic metres. 75 cubic metres = 1 tonne
Some alternatives to raising the level of a garden at risk of flooding.